Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: One or more sigma factor protein binds to the RNA polymerase holoenzyme, allowing it to bind to promoter DNA. RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides. RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides to the complementary nucleotides of one DNA strand.
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The RNA polymerase reads the genetic information from the DNA strand and translates it into messenger RNA molecules. Phosphate attachments to the individual amino acid groups of the CTD domain regulate the activity of the polymerase.
DNA is transcribed by the enzyme RNA polymerase. The RNA polymerase (pale blue) moves stepwise along the DNA, unwinding the DNA helix at its active site. As it progresses, the polymerase adds nucleotides (here, small “T” shapes) one