ukpuru: “ “The maiden spirit Ikorodo. Obima village group near Nsukka, Nigeria, Photo: David Ames. Maiden-spirit costumes are usually body suits made of heavy black felt with appliquéd patterns cut from commercial cotton cloth.
Shaman: ~ Fetish Magician with horns, wooden mask, spear, and sword, dress of leaves of palm and plantain. Frontispiece from Fetishism in West Africa: Forty Years' Observations of Native Customs and Superstitions.
Mamuthones (Nuoro, Italian Sardinia) in traditional carnival costume used for pre-Christian rites to ancient gods of agriculture. The mask is carved in pieces of wild pear wood & darkened alder walnut.