Age of Enlightenment

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The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.[1] Its purpose was to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange.

Susan Heep
Famous Genius Who Was Also a Huge Coffee Addict

New Coffee Shop Adventures

textbookxdotcom: “ 9 Famous Geniuses Who Were Also Huge Coffee Addicts http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/02/famous-coffee-drinkers_n_5358495.html?ncid=fcbklnkushpmg00000063 ”

Paine, Thomas, 1737-1809  death mask, from the original by J. W. Jarvis.

Hutton P-S

“Government has no other end, but the preservation of property.” – John Locke

John Locke's Two Treatise on Government

John Locke was a 17th century English political theorist. He believed that that nobody had any natural political authority over anyone else. Political authority is granted through consent.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), German philosopher and mathematician

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), German philosopher and mathematician

Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.

Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.

Joseph Banks 1773 Reynolds-He is credited with introducing the eucalyptus, acacia, and the genus named after him, Banksia, to the Western world. Approximately 80 species of plants bear his name. He was the leading founder of the African Association and a member of the Society of Dilettanti which helped to establish the Royal Academy.

Joseph Banks

Joseph Banks 1773 Reynolds-He is credited with introducing the eucalyptus, acacia, and the genus named after him, Banksia, to the Western world. Approximately 80 species of plants bear his name. He was the leading founder of the African Association and a member of the Society of Dilettanti which helped to establish the Royal Academy.

Bernoulli (1700-1782) was the son of Jean Bernoulli (1667-1748), who founded a dynasty of highly talented mathematicians.

Bernoulli was the son of Jean Bernoulli , who founded a dynasty of...

Bernoulli was the son of Jean Bernoulli , who founded a dynasty of highly talented mathematicians. Daniel Bernoulli became professor of mathematics at St Petersburg, Russia, in 1725. He went on to...

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (15 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat and writer. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from Turkey, as wife to the British ambassador, which have been described by Billie Melman as “the very first example of a secular work by a woman about the Muslim Orient”.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (15 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat and writer. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from Turkey, as wife to the British ambassador, which have been described by Billie Melman as “the very first example of a secular work by a woman about the Muslim Orient”.

Ignoring the racial hierarchy that was born of the Enlightenment underestimates its influence.

How the Enlightenment Created Modern Race Thinking and Why We Should Confront It

Ignoring the racial hierarchy that was born of the Enlightenment underestimates its influence.

In The Social Contract (1762) Rousseau argues that laws are binding only when they are supported by the general will of the people.  His famous idea, 'man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains' challenged the traditional order of society. Where previous philosophers had spoken of elites, Rousseau became the champion of the common person. His perfect world was one in which the will of the people was most important.  His arguments broke down for two reasons:  People are born into…

The Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau

View 'The Social Contract' on the British Library's website

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - Lady Mary returned to the West with knowledge of the Ottoman practice of inoculation against smallpox, known as variolation. In the 1790s, Edward Jenner developed a safer method, vaccination. In 1727 her husband inherited Wortley Hall, near Barnsley, Yorkshire, and commissioned a major remodelling of the house in 1742.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - Lady Mary returned to the West with knowledge of the Ottoman practice of inoculation against smallpox, known as variolation. In the 1790s, Edward Jenner developed a safer method, vaccination. In 1727 her husband inherited Wortley Hall, near Barnsley, Yorkshire, and commissioned a major remodelling of the house in 1742.

Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745  death mask, from the original. See Hutton,

Hutton P-S

German explorer Alexander von Humboldt showed his disgust for slavery and often criticized the colonial policies.

German explorer Alexander von Humboldt showed his disgust for slavery and often criticized the colonial policies.